Sea freight - somehow antique yet modern!

The emergence of maritime transport

Everyone knows that you can import certain goods by boat and export. But how are ships or boats ever created? Since when has the opportunity to move on the water? About 50,000 years ago were according to scientists dealing with the history of transport and / or possibility of movement, invented boats. And it is said that this movement means has arisen in the then uninhabited Cyprus. It started at the time of the invention of a raft. The so-called master boot was by archaeological finds in the 6th To 8 Millennium BC even shown in Europe, for example in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany.

Even at times when Christopher Columbus traveled the seas, it was customary to bring goods by ship from "A" to "B" to. The sea was at that time a common transport route, as many countries or continents could not be traveled by land. What should men make the trade then? How should food, crude oil and other oil-based products find their way? The only possibility was already the transport across the seas.

For such a long time so goods are transported by ship from one place to another. One would think that in this day and age this kind of transportation option is not used too often, but since you are vastly mistaken! Despite the modern technology, it is with aircraft or other options, commodities and goods are still preferably transported by ship. More than 90 percent of all goods go to the account of the voyage. Even iron ore, coal and grain are much traded goods that are shipped by sea.

Whatever the contracts were closed at that time, there have been before and after Christ insurance contracts. They spoke to the times of "Sea loan". According to reports, this word implies that it was agreed between the trading Some of that interest was paid only when the goods have reached the destination port safely. A first truly closed Sea Contract comes from Genoa. There was also agreed that in case of loss of ship or goods, the full purchase amount was payable. Today there is naturally quite entrenched clauses in contracts that insure a complete loss.

The nature of the voyage:

To this day, the nature of the voyage has practically not changed. The goods to be brought to the buyers by sea to find their way first railway vehicles or motor vehicles into the harbor. There they are loaded onto the ships. There are a number of transport ships:

• Tanker
• Ferries
• Container freighter
• timber cargo ships
• Bulkfraighter
• Dry Cargo Ships

And many other types. There is for all goods the appropriate ship type, but you should choose, especially the right company. Meanwhile, the customer has the choice here of torment, as many logistics and forwarding companies work together in close cooperation.
Maritime transport and the sea has seamlessly queued in the combination of transport or rather, the transport links have clearly classified into the sea because these looks back on a much longer history of origin. Recommended here is to choose a company that offers this combination of land and sea in one, then complications or delays are virtually impossible. World can be seen a steady expansion of the ocean.

Import and export of goods:

The import and export is of course the most important factor for sea freight. In this business of trading in consumer goods and other goods takes place mainly by sea. Around the world there are companies of all sizes, specializing in the import and export. The ocean is a guaranteed safe concept of importing and exporting. The sea was always an important part in this kind of business. The company, which is to deal with the import, ie, the import and export of certain goods, the export of such goods, cooperate with shipping companies and freight forwarders. The ocean is virtually essential in this area.

In import and export business, the company have a day to do with the customs and the administration work. The customs clearance is a top priority and must be handled with great care and great expertise.

Why sea freight instead of air?

Proven the cost of sea freight are clearly lower than for air freight. That's always been that way. Therefore, this transport option is also never died and still enjoys great popularity and ever more expectant. Is the unit price, the more goods can be transported in a transport, the cheaper. The result of increased profits, if the transport costs are billed a flat rate and not per piece or quantity with the customer. Another ingredient in ocean freight containers are available. However, one must bear in ocean freight, that the disposition is not * just * can be done in time. Due to the long distances it comes time to time, mostly due to the weather, delays. This must be considered in advance with. If you have time-sensitive goods must arrive quickly, then you have to decide in the cases for and against the air cargo price.

Sea freight contract

Ocean freight contract between the shipper (in English: Shipper, in French: Chargeur) completed and the shipper (transporter in English: Carrier, in French). The carrier is also referred to in some cases as a "carrier", the shipper as "sender". In German, is also the term "shipper" art. This refers to the person who handed over the goods directly to the shipper. As a general term refers to the shippers, charterers or receivers in professional circles as "cargo interests".

Where earlier still a "handshake" was, there are now pages and pages of documents which contain clauses that protect on the one hand the shipper and secure on the other side of course the shipper. Literally, it is a contract for the delivery of goods from one place to another for a fee. The German Law of the Sea, for example, is regulated by the Commercial Code. The legal instrument for this called "bill of lading", but is increasingly being replaced by the "sea waybill" now.

Freight Forwarder:

The shipper / carrier is the person or company that promises to transport the goods by contract. Freight Forwarder is not always the same owners, so owners of a ship. This is also not necessary. These logistics solutions are usually offered by forwarders. The shipper will bring the goods to be imported or exported from the charterers / shippers. Usually stacked on pallets and, according to the permitted height, wrapped in foil. The goods will be provided with shipping documents down to the port and loaded into containers. The trip begins and ends at the destination port at customs. There, the papers are reviewed, if necessary, samples were taken, and when this procedure is successful, the goods are released for export from the port and can be brought to its destination on the track or on the road.


The shipper / Shipper is for the client to import or export goods.
He gives the shipper all the important information about the nature of the goods, any dangerous goods, the quantity and weight. It ensures that the goods are ready for shipment on the agreed date.


These are global ISO 668 standard ocean freight container / Freight Containers. The standardization of the size and length was reached by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The guarantees in all sea ports in the world the smooth running of loading, transporting and unloading of goods. The container handling was so much easier and therefore faster. It saves time and money.

A distinction between the sea

• standard containers
• Reefer
• Tank Container
• Collapsible shipping containers

The overseas containers have especially the following properties

• they are stackable, by standardized corners and tabs
• they are seawater and rain hard
• they are locked, which protects against accidental opening during loading and unloading
• they are sealed / sealed after loading, which protects against unauthorized access by third parties. For the customs guarantee that after loading nothing has been added or removed.

In international trade, the English names for ISO containers have prevailed. That is, the container sizes are in feet ("ft) and inches ('') and not in meters (m) and centimeters (cm) specified.

Most standard containers are used for shipping pallets packed goods in sizes 20 ft, 40 ft or 45 ft high cube used. Much larger containers are still used in North America. The choice of container size depends partly on the amount and size of the goods to be loaded, the other of the loading capacity of the container ship.

Transshipment ports:

The size and especially the draft at full load of the container ship are decisive for the choice of the destination port. Not all container ships can control each port. If the draft of the vessel at full load is much to consider. Ports can not be controlled when the depth of the fairway is not sufficient. For example, allow access to the port of Hamburg container vessels with a draft of 13.5 meters (irrespective of the tide) and up to 14.5 meters (dependent on tides). The Maasvlakte in Rotterdam is a deep water port, its shipping channel has a depth of 26 meters. Only because you can see the major difference.

Container Ships

Container ships are designed for the transport of ISO containers. The size of the container ship is specified globally in TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) and gives information about how many 20-foot container can be loaded.
The development and construction of container ships went ahead rapidly. The first Generation of container ships, until 1968, had a capacity of 500 to 800 TEUs. Already the 4th Generation, from 1987, could be loaded with up to 4,500 TEUs. By 2012 the largest container ship can carry up to 11,000 TEUs.

The change of ports

The ports that have specialized in container handling, offer a different picture today than it was decades ago. It container terminals were built, which have replaced the old quays time. Jobs were lost due to technical progress. Was needed at that time stevedores for loading and unloading of the individual bags and boxes, we need to move today, only high-tech equipment to the container. It not only saves loading time and wait times, but also led to staff reductions. The occupations were transformed significantly in the context. As in all areas, there was also in the port cities of winners and losers. For example, the Port of San Francisco lost its leading position as a trading port. Existing long pier was no longer needed for loading and unloading, but on the other hand, had the bearing surface for the containers. In contrast, the port of Rotterdam became the major port. Firstly, through its exposed position as a seaport with the deep fairway on the other by the usable storage space. Certainly there are many more examples of the restructuring of ports worldwide.
With intermodal containers, sorting and loading the container can happen far away from the point of embarkation.

TOP container ports

Today, almost 90% of the cargo transported by sea worldwide, including the major container ports in 2012 were located next to the Chinese ports including Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Qingdao and European offices in Hamburg (Germany), Rotterdam (NL) and Antwerp (B). At these sites, not only goods are unloaded from around the world, but they are also a significant part of the economy of these countries.

Economic impact

In addition to the jobs at the port locations, the logistics industry is creating new employment fields. To follow the example of Hamburg is clear, as in the environment of the port always new logistics park on the edge of highways arise. Where goods are stored, picked and packed carriage ready. The direct connection to the highways boasts easy access and quick further transport of goods.

Expansion of ports

In Hamburg, for example, is frequently debated by the deepening of the channel of the Elbe. To be able to shipping and logistics company received an absolute MUST to have larger container ships to pass in direct competition with the ports of Antwerp and Rotterdam. For the conservationist and fruit growers in the Old Country, on the southern edge of Hamburg, it's about ecological concerns and the fear of shipping disasters in which the same is possibly contaminated for years to come. Two completely different approaches, in which up to now the economy was ahead and the deepening of the Elbe, most recently in 2002, agreed.

Wilhelmshaven in the Jade-Weser-Port (JWP) was newly built and 21 September 2012 formally put into operation. The states of Lower Saxony and Bremen hope to gain from the huge investment a clear advantage in the competition, on the one hand by the nature of the fairway, the container ships up 16.5 m Draft can drive and the other by the convenient location with access to the highway. The entire project was developed trendsetting. Since the shipping companies always build larger container ships and send them to ride, not only the loading capacitance but also the depth will increase.

Despite the modern aviation technology, the sea will always be the most popular way to transport goods or goods from one place to another. Thanks to the continuous development in the whole process of this system of transportation and competent company will also help me in the future!


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